Recover media from an iPod
Media files on an Apple device are stored in a set of hidden folders with short randomised file names. If you lose access to your iTunes library and have no backup to restore then you can extract these files into a new library.
First use option under Edit > Preferences > Devices (Windows) or iTunes > Preferences > Devices (Mac) to Prevent iPods, iPhones, and iPads from syncing automatically to ensure that existing content on the device isn't overwritten before you've had a chance to recover it.
Next make sure you can see hidden files in Windows Explorer (details) or Finder (details) so that you have access to files that you want to recover. Put your iPod into Disk Mode and connect it to your computer. For the iPod shuffle this mode is enabled with iTunes rather than a combination of buttons. The files will be distributed randomly between a number of folders named F00 upwards that are found inside Device > iPod_Control > Music. For iOS devices whose file systems cannot be explored directly with Windows Explorer or Finder try http://www.i-funbox.com/. This should give access to the same set of folders in the device which you can copy out.
If you don't see this set of folders, or they are all empty but there was content previously stored on your device, then you could investigate the possibility of recovering deleted/erased files using a recovery tool such as Recuva or EaseUS, then apply the techniques that follow to the data that you retrieve.
To begin the recovery process browse to Device > iPod_Control > Music, select the folders within and copy them with Ctrl+C (Windows) or Cmd+C (Mac). You can ignore any ._F## files you may see. These may show in a Windows formatted device that has been updated on a Mac.
With iTunes closed paste the folders you have copied into your library's Automatically Add to iTunes folder using Ctrl+V (Windows) or Cmd+V (Mac). This folder will normally be inside User's Music > iTunes > iTunes Media.
Next you need to unhide the hidden folders or iTunes will discard them and their contents rather than importing to the library. For Windows select all of the folders you have pasted in, right-click and select Properties, untick the Hidden checkbox and click OK, then confirm that you want to make the changes. There should be a similar process for Mac.
Once the media has been recovered you should backup the library. See Backup your iTunes for Windows library with SyncToy for a suggested approach.
Windows users may also find these two scripts useful:
ImportDevicePlaylists - Imports regular playlists from an iPod or iOS device into the iTunes library. Can import from a selected playlist, or playlist folder, or all playlists on the device.
SyncStats - Copies highest play count, skip count, rating and most recent played & skipped date of selected tracks or playlist between iTunes and an iPod or iOS device.
See also Recover your iTunes library from your iPod or iOS device for further advice if you have an iPhone, iPad or iPod touch. There is also a list of some possible media recovery tools which might be useful if you want recover selected content from the device.
iPod click wheel games
iTunes 12.7 introduced changes to iTunes which have removed the management features for iPod click wheel games. They can neither be added to an iPod nor transferred from it. Should you want that facility you may need to temporarily install a copy of iTunes 126.96.36.199 which can be obtained from Deploy apps in a business environment with iTunes - Apple Support. If needs be you can make a separate library to work with this build and iPod games or iOS apps, then reinstall the current version of iTunes and reconnect to your regular library when ready.