It's possible to hide both your Toolbar (the bit with the URL and search windows and the Page and Action menus) and your Menu Bar in Safari for Windows. Once you've done that, you've got no GUI controls available for getting your bars back.
In fact, it's possible to hide every single bar in your Safari window.
Start off with your Menu Bar showing.
Now go "View > Hide Toolbar"
... Go "View > Hide Tab Bar"
... Go "View > Hide Status Bar"
... Go "View > Hide Bookmarks Bar"
... and finish off with a "View > Hide Menu Bar" ... (poit!)
To recover from this situation use the "Show/Hide Toolbar" keyboard shortcut:
Once you've got your Toolbar back, you should normally have your Action Menu back. (The Action Menu is that wee coggy thing that lives to the far right of the Toolbar if you haven't customised your Toolbar to put it somewhere else.) Click the Action Menu to see "Show" commands for all the other bars, and replace the ones you want back one by one.