My bookmarks from my MacBook show up on my iPad, however my bookmarks from my iPad do not show up on my MacBook.
On the Mac open System Preferences > iCloud
Deselect the box next to Bookmarks then reselect it then restart your Mac.
On the iPad tap Settings > iCloud
Toggle Bookmarks off then back on then restart the iPad.
Hold the On/Off Sleep/Wake button down until the red slider appears. Slide your finger across the slider to turn off iPhone. To turn iPhone back on, press and hold the On/Off Sleep/Wake button until the Apple logo appears.
Omro, yes it is possible that the bookmarks which are not currently on both devices could be lost if you did that. Since Apple does not allow 3rd-party apps to access Safari bookmarks on the iPad, the only solution, if it works, would be to back up your iPad to your Mac before doing as Carolyn recommended, so that you can restore them back if disaster occurs. But I've never done that myself. I'm just speculating that it seems like it should work.
But is it possible that you were expecting bookmarks changes to appear instantly? As of yesterday, I found that iCloud is now pushing bookmarks changes on a 15-minute cycle. Check those bookmarks again. Maybe they have "arrived".
One possible cause of this problem is if you are using a third-party bookmarks syncing service on your Mac which has not been rewritten for compatibility with iCloud.
Well, then this appears to be not a problem with syncing, but instead something went wrong during the original setup. Well, just try what we said. Back your iPad up to your Mac, then reset everything as described by Carolyn. If you're really concerned about the iPad bookmarks, or if there's an Apple Store nearby, schedule an appointment and ask a Genius to do it for you. It should have worked the first time – lean on Apple to fix it for you.
Oh, I just realized one more possibility. Many people don't realize that what I call loose bookmarks, not in the Bookmarks Bar and not in the Bookmarks Menu, are not visible in Safari on the Mac except in the Show All Bookmarks window.
If you haven't done this, on that Mac, activate Safari and click in the menu: Bookmarks ▸ Show All Bookmarks. See if your missing bookmarks are in the left sidebar, at the bottom.