When in the Finder search window, you can select Arrange and Sort Options. You can also set it to list view (without an Arrangement--ie Arrangement = None) and sort by clicking on the header columns. You can right-click on the headers to add other headers.
Both methods use Spotlight. The spotlight menu displays search results based on the settings in the Spotlight System Preference and some hard-coded restrictions (like system files).
The Finder has some of the same restrictions, but you can search into system folders by starting the search in a System folder (like your user Library folder). Additionally, you can add System Files to the criteria by selecting Other… from the criteria button in Finder.
With the Finder, you can set much more options in what you are searching for. You can also save the search so that you can always access it quickly from the Sidebar.
There are a few more useful search criteria in that list, like file visibility if you are searching for hidden files.
Additionally, since you are in a Finder window, you can do things like move, delete, rename, etc.
Spotlight and Finder find are basically the same see this thread Is there a difference between "Spotlight" & the "Search" field?
As for your question re: sort by date either one will accomplish the task as once you do a Show All in spotlight you can a regular finder window.
There are a number of ways to sort a finder window by date, First thing you need to know which date, created, modified, added then either add the correct date column to the finder window or else use the finders view options window (⌘-J) to set the sort:
Either use the Sort By: pulldown to set the sort or add the date column to the window.
While doing a search to find out how to add columns to my Search results, I came across this thread.
How did you get your View Options for your "Searching This Mac" finder window to list Size?? Size as well as Version, Comments, and Label are greyed-out when I pull up this option box. (I see that Version and Comments is greyed-out for you.)
I would like to add additional columns, especially size, but can't figure out a way to do it!!
Now that I see you have it, could you please explain how you got it to be available??