Currently, the iPad does not have this capability, since it's one user with one computer.
However, a lot of users have asked for this capability. Maybe Apple will include in iOS 6 when it is released in the fall.
Send your comments/request to Apple.
Look at Apple feedback.
Thanks, but I know that at least some of this is possible with Apple Configurator. I've seen it in action, but I'm not sure if it works exactly as I think it does. So I guess my question is more about Apple Configurator vs the older Configuration Utility. Configurator is supposed to provide some of this capability, but the documentation is not entirely clear to me. It makes it sounds like it is good for managing a group of shared iPads with specific sets of apps and settings, but my question is whether or not I can use it to back up a user's device and then push it to another device.