No, you cannot. Not unless you enabled Find my iPod before it got lost, and it is still on and connected to Wi-Fi. If all of the above are true, trying to track it at http://icloud.com is worth a shot.
Only if you had the FindMyiPod service configured before you lost the device, and it's connected to a working Wi-Fi network, and has not been restored to factory defaults by anybody who may have found it. If you didn't do that, I'm afraid you are out of luck.
You should report the theft to your local authorities and change any and all passwords to accounts you may have set up or accessed with the device immediately. Apple will not do anything to help.