I'm having the same problem. Although iTunes says it is syncing Calendars and Contacts the Calendars are not being synced (I haven't checked Contacts since I don't make lots of changes to them.)
It also does not appear to be backing up to my desktop (at least not each time) - I just did a sync and the backup date is over 30 minutes ago.
This is very worrisome.
(And I am not using iCloud.)