I can't advise directly on the podcast app as I don't have an iOS device. However: the podcast works normally in iTunes on a Mac.
Looking at the feed, each episode has a tag called 'media title' which in each case contains only 'ddifgim', so it can only be there that the app is picking up what it's showing in your first screenshot (which by the way is so small I can barely read it).
Why it's doing this with a tag which iTunes isn't supposed to be able to read I don't know, but obviously your workaround is to change what's in this tag so that it contains what you want to show. I can't advise on how to do this in WordPress - or Feedburner, whichever is producing this tag (you should start by looking at the Wordpress feed to see if the tag is there or whether Feedburner has added it) so you will need to look at the various entry fields to see if you can find out where this has been entered.
Joar - Have you managed to find a solution to this, i am having the exact same issue with my podcast
When searching for the podcast in itunes or on the app is displays everything correctly, but in the app as soon as i subscribe and view the episodes in library the epsiode titles are all the same.
After roger mentioning the Media Title tag in the feed, i checked mine and this is the same for me, it appears that it is looking at this tag to get the episode title.
Extract from feed
the 'tpsuk' is what all my epiosdes are being called.
So was wondering if you found a solution or where to change this in wordpress or the feed?
Any help would be great