OK, here's my last suggestion...after this I'm just out of ideas, because I can get it to work...so I'm not sure what else to troubleshoot.
/Volumes is really supposed to be used by the OS for mounting auto-detected volumes...so let's not use it. Instead of creating a folder under /Volumes to use as the mountpoint, put it right in your home folder. Use X360IOS again if you like, or maybe call it something simple like "linuxmnt" (maybe there will be other Linux disks in your future...).
Then the command to mount would be:
sudo fuse-ext2 -o force /dev/<your disk identifier> ~/X360IOS
It will still appear on your Desktop if it mounts successfully.
Well I just made things worse. I followed these instructions:
I added the rw+ to the fuse-ext2 script. Now I can't even get the drive to mount! AHHHHH!!!!
Maybe at this point try (in order):
1. Reinstalling OSXFuse;
2. Reinstalling Fuse-ext2; and
3. Trying the steps for mounting the drive again.
I know you've been trying many things (and in many different orders). So try resetting everything to as close to a clean slate as you can. But I really don't have any new suggestions. I have OSXFuse, I've installed Fuse-ext2 and the steps I outlined work...so you should be able to get it to work for you.
I downloaded and installed a fresh version. Same thing. Basically with the unaltered fuse-ext2 I can get the drive to mount no problem, but it just won't boot. When I force it to read, I get the Socket is Not Connected Message. When I alter the fuse-ext2 file and add rw+ to it, I lose the ability to mount the drive. I think I'm going to give up on this approach.
How does this sound? On my old mac, I had Snow Leopard and it had no problem reading and writing to the Linux drive. It just took really long to do it. I would partition 20GB or so of my current HD into Snow Leopard. Transfer the files from my mountain lion partition to my snow leopard partition and then from there transfer it to Linux. Are there any serious risks to partitioning a new mac book pro into an older operating system like snow leopard? Thanks again!