You can set up Smart Albums in Aperture. You can set Smart Albums to show on your iPhone.
Afaict, you cannot search, filter, or create Smart Albums on your iPhone.
The reason is fairly straightforward: in order to have a superset of Images to search, you must sync them all. It is assumed -- accurately, imho, but perhaps not applicable in your case -- that the superset of you entire Library is too large to sync with your iPhone.
In practice, the iPhone is good for displaying (within the limitation of the display) some of you Images -- but is not used to filter Images. Filter with Albums within Aperture, and then sync filtered Albums.
(Sent from my magic glass.)