Not via ARD, no. ARD only controls the remote system; it does not allow transfer of any functions from the remote system to your local system.
As to printer sharing, that normally works only on the local network, so your remote system won't natively discover your home printer. You might look into Slink:
which I believe makes such printing possible, assuming of course that any firewall on your work network would allow that (many companies will block the necessary ports which would make this impossible).