I have the iPod Classic (160 GB version), same thing happended to me. I also attempted to uninstall iTunes (completely) and install iTunes 11 (for Windows 64 bit), same results. When I connect the iPod to the computer, it attempts to install a driver (Apple Mobile Device USB Driver) and then fails. This seems to be a re-occuring theme with iTunes for Windows releases.
I have exactly the same problem.
I just called Apple Support who said they have no record or knowledge of anyone having problems syncing iPod Classic with iTunes v11...
I told the guy I suspected it may be a bug with v11 as there were lots of similar posts here and he said Apple don't monitor these pages......
Looks like we're on our own.
Maybe time to go Samsung Galaxy?