I recently had a HDD failure on the original drive from my mid-2009 MPB. I decided it was time to upgrade to an SSD, and purchased a Crucial 128gb (CT128M4SSD2). I installed the drive, and initially had issues installing Mountain Lion from a USB recovery drive. Specifically, disk utility refused to partition or erase the drive. Crucial tech support led me to believe that the problem is that the new drive wasnt being properly initialized by the OS-less MBP, so I then placed the SSD in a USB enclosure and used my Mac Mini to successfully partition the drive.
Thinking there may be a problem with my MBP's SATA connection, I kept the SSD in the USB enclosure and installed Mountain Lion on it. From the USB enclosure, my MBP will boot Mountain Lion from the SSD and run without issue. However, when I re-installed the SSD internally, it refuses to boot and gives me the blank grey screen after 30-60 seconds. When I attempt to boot the recovery partition, it connects me to wi-fi, but each time I try to re-install this way, when I continue from the "to download and restore OS X, your computer's eligibility will be verified with Apple" screen, a box immediately pops up saying "An error occurred while preparing the installation. Try running this application again."
In short, the SSD clearly works because it will run perfectly via the USB enclosure (though at USB 2.0 speed). My internal connection may be the problem, but it consistently recognizes the drive and partition within disk utility and as a drive selection option at startup. Has anyone been through a similar issue when swapping out a failed HDD?