iCloud doesn't sync apps, in only makes it possible to redownload your apps from the app store for free (which has nothing to do with your iCloud account).
When you say you are trying to transfer photos, do you mean with photo stream?
When you subscribed to iTunes Match, did the match process complete properly? You might want to open iTunes, click on your musi library, go to View>View Options and under Music check iCloud Status. Then examin the iCloud status for your songs to be sure they all say Matched, Uploaded or Purchased and not Waiting or Ineligible.