In order for "find my iPhone/iPad" to work you must have Location Services Enabled (turned on). That is the only way Apple has a GPS signal. If it is off, there is no way to find the device. (My iPhone was stolen last November...)
You could sign on to find my iPhone on the Internet and set it up to play a sound when the device is located, on the off chance that the person who stole it is stupid enough to turn Location Services on under your name unlikely)...
Report to police along with serial number. Change all your passwords.
These links may be helpful.
How to Track and Report Stolen iPad
Reporting a lost or stolen Apple product
Report Stolen iPad Tips and iPad Theft Prevention
How to recover a lost or stolen iPad
How to Find a Stolen iPad
Apple Product Lost or Stolen
Oops! iForgot My New iPad On the Plane; Now What?
If you don't know your lost/stolen iPad's serial number, use the instructions below. The S/N is also on the iPad's box.
How to Find Your iPad Serial Number
iOS: How to find the serial number, IMEI, MEID, CDN, and ICCID number