After more searching on the forum, I found something that helped me:
I had the same problems as described in the earlier posts. After my shock about my Photos I searched for a solution.
1.) Download Tiny Umbrella 6. Link is on the right site of this website http://thefirmwareumbrella.blogspot.com
2.) Install and connect iPhone
3.) Software is showing a connected iPhone in recovery mode. In the top of the software is a button "Exit Recovery" Press that
4.) My iPhone got out of recovery and seemed like to install ios 6 again. Finally it restarted with ios6
5.) All my apps was still their, but my photos wasn't. I looked at my iPhone storage and all my Phone was full of "other data"
6.) I used an iPhone File Manager to get access to my photos again...
Worked for me, but I can't gurantee that it is working for all of u guys....
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For me it was just a case of clicking the button 'Exit Recovery'. Phone is back to its former glory, I'm just copying all photos down.
I would've been probably safe anyway as I have the 'automatically back ot to this computer' ticked. So I assume that there would've been a back up from the day before or so (I'm syncing every day)....