So it sounds like you have contacts from multiple mail accounts syncing to/from your iPhone. They will all appear there as long as their respective accounts are checked under contacts/groups(upper left of contact screen).
As far as contacts created on the iPhone, if you select Outlook as your default account for contacts, all contacts created on the iPhone will sync with Outlook. I'm assuming your Outlook syncs with an Exchange Server.
You could connect the iPhone to iTunes and sync all of your contacts to say, a desktop version of Outlook. You could then import that set of contacts into the Exchange version of Outlook.