When two devices quit working at the same time, I would put blame on the charger. If you want a definitive answer, you can take it to a genius bar to have the battery and the iphone tested. You could also do a test yourself by finding another USB charger (i use a 1.1A usb charger for mine) and see if it works with a different charger.
An iPod or iPad charger can be used to charge an iPhone. Are you referring to the charger or the cable, however?
A late model Macbook (2011 or later) should be able to charge an iPhone fully if the iPhone is the only USB device connected, as it can supply 1 amp, which is the maximum the iPhone needs.
If it doesn't charge try a different cable (except for a pre-2008 iPod cable, which was Firewire rather than USB), and inspect the connector on the bottom of the phone for dirt or damage. Use a magnifying glass, and clean it with a wood or plastic toothpick or a dry toothbrush.