The chargers are physcially different sizes. The iPhone charger is small and cannot correctly charge an iPad. The iPad charger on the other hand is larger and can charge all Applle devices fine. All Chargers are USB.
The Cables for iPhones 1 through 4S are the same 30 pin cable. as the one used in iPads 1 - 3. So no problems there.
The Cable used for iPads 4 and Mini is the same as the cable used for an iPhone 5: Liightning But is different to the other cable mentioned above.
Not sure how you were able to mistake them.
If you plugged an older 30 pin cable in an iPad 1 2 or 3 like Lex suggests very old ones had the release buttons on the side you needed to press to release if form the connector. Other than that, they are the same type of cable.
The 30 pin cables cannot fit in the new Lightning ports, and the new Lightning cables are too small and thin to atually stay in place on the old ports.
Can you explain exactly what you did? And with what devices and cables exactly?