Shutdown then reset the system SMC and PRAM.
Others have reported an issue with their systems after upgrading to Mavericks that might be related in https://discussions.apple.com/thread/5497235
No fix is posted yet, but you might want to check to see if you have the kernel_task process using 100% CPU after coming out of sleep, and if plugging/unplugging headphones stops that task from using so much CPU.
It shouldn't be the new Power Nap feature in Mavericks, as your system appears to be too old to support it, but you should check your settings to see if it's enabled: http://support.apple.com/kb/HT5394
Thanks guys I'll try the resets.
As for Power Nap, yes I don't have that on my machine as it is too old like you mentioned.
I did a quick test (short on time) and when I closed all programs it seemd to behave better.
But even if I had one program open (chrome) with only one tab open (gmail, not a video site etc), it ran hot and loud after putting it to sleep.
I've had the exact same problem with my 2009. Resetting the SMC didn't do anything, but resetting the PRAM seems to have helped. It's still running a little warmer than it used to since I installed Mavericks (which I regret), but it doesn't seem to be a threatening temperature. Still very frustrating though.
I've had this problem with my 2009 Macbook Pro for at least a few weeks now - every time I put it to sleep, commuting to or from work, the disk drive would get very hot and drain the battery while it was sleeping. Resetting the SMC and PRAM following the linked instructions seems to have fixed this completely. Thank you!