What do you exactly means by '…all but the name of the folder is invisible.'? Does Finder show only the name of the folders and no icon? If this is the case open a Finder window and check the settings in View->Show View Options.
Yep, the finder only shows the name of the folder and not the icon. I checked the settings you mentioned, it's set to show icon preview, which it still does for the images on the desktop and elsewhere. It's the folder icons that have vanished.