I don't think that you can. I know that you can switch which monitor (the external or the primary screen) so that you can have the persentation and presenter display on which ever one you want; however, I think if you only have one screen it will show the presentation.
I have tried something similar to what you are asking before and couldn't get it to work. I will try some more and let you know if I find a solution.
I also needed to view presenter notes while recording a presentation on my Macbook Pro and could not find a solutions, but I did find a pretty good work around.
I downloaded the Keynote Remote app for my iPhone. I am now able to start recording on my laptop and then hit start slideshow on my iphone to view a portrait mode version of my slides with presenter notes below. I use my phone to flip through slides and slide builds while I'm reading through my presenter notes. When I've reached the end of the presentation I hit esc on my Macbook Pro and I'm done. I'm then able to export the recorded presentation as a Quicktime video and post it on our website, which is exactly what I set out to do.
It takes a little bit of coordination to get used to this method, but I don't need to have a projector or second monitor because my phone takes on the second monitor role.
Thanks jpmcvay23. I am glad that there are others trying to solve this. I also had a work around. Two computers. I don't have an iPhone yet. I put the presentation on both and record into the one while keeping the other presentation in presentation in presenter mode for timeing and to see the upcoming transitions. This is just crazy that Apple can't take a few minutes and implement this. It is not like they have to invent something. It already exists on the presenter display. Why can I use it only during a presentation or in review? There has to be a single link in a menu that could be added to make the presentation display available on a single screen while making a recording. I am not expecting a solution from a user like you or me. I guess that this is a suggestion to Apple to add this to keynote. And in case they are listening, let's get an iPad remote as well. THis seems like an obvious oversight.
I completly agree, Apple should be working on fixes like this, in things that they already have. Not pouring all their resources into the "latest and greatest". It's not like the have anything to lose. They have a ton of geeks that where made to do this sort of thing. GET ON IT!! Don't they pride themselves in the "Perfect product?"
I love the iPhone or iPad "Remote App" workaround. The only problem is that if you are working incrementally through a slideshow, or flub a talking point on a slide, and want to re-record from the slide you flubbed going FORWARD, the iOS app gets LOST and can't recover. Now, the audio track is still intact, but the workaround for making a screencast like this is gone. I can't use my iPhone and the Remote app to do this midstream. You have to get it all in one take.
I'd vote that Apple gets iWork updated on ALL devices. They have an 81% solution. Just above acceptable, and this is down from its majesty some years ago. Pages and Keynote KILL their counterparts. And it's great to have iCloud syncing, but THESE BUGS NEED SQUASHED to protect the entire ecoystem.
A Very Passionate iWork Fan.