OK, I think I figured it out, with Apple's iCloud instructions and a little help from campus tech support. This only applies to people using Outlook with Microsoft Exchange.
Enable iCloud on your computer (running Lion) and your iPhone. http://www.apple.com/icloud/setup/mac.html
Then go to your iPhone's Mail icon, click on Add Account > Microsoft Exchange and enter your login info.
Doing this transferred my work email and calendar to my phone wirelessly.