I am having the same problem, except with syncing to a CARDDAV account hosted by Addressbook Server on OS X 10.6.8 Server.
I am also using a 10.7.2 client, AFP mounted network home from an OS X 10.6.8 Server. It also happens with a mobile account with a portable home directory on my MacBook Air.
I suspect this is a bug with the address book application on 10.7.2 as no other clients are affected right now; iPad (IOS 5), iPhone (IOS 5), etc..
Also, prior to upgrading to Lion, this CARDDAV account worked flawlessly under Snow Leopard.
The * AddressBook-v22.abcddb.incompatible files that keep appearing in ~/.Trash seem to be generated by the Mail app in 10.7.2.
Hopefully this will get fixed with the 10.7.3 update.
Not sure if it will help, but I seem to have figured out what was causing my issues:
If you have any iOS devices that are also synced with the CARDDAV account, they may be the culprit.
Randy Rodrigues, myself and a few others looked for a solution for months, and this seems to do the trick. Credits: https://discussions.apple.com/people/Randall%20Rodrigues