This much I can answer. I don't know much about iCloud. What I do know is iOS version of Numbers is a separate purchase from that for your Mac. So naturally if you purchase on the Phone Numbers, it won't appear on the Mac, except as a sync'ed App that is saved for backup on your Mac when you sync it with iTunes. Someone in the iCloud forum can probably answer the rest. So I'm asking a moderator move this thread. No action is needed on your part.
When I update a document on say the iPad, it is uploaded to iCloud.com within seconds.
For iTunes purchases to show up on your mac when purchased on the phone you need automatic downloads enabled in iTunes preferences, are they.
Photostream only works over wifi, do you have a wifi connection when you are trying.
That is exactly how I thought iCloud should work in seconds, no matter what device your using as they all go through the wi-fi back & forth to each other.
Auto downloads are on, I have a full strength wi-fi signal, back to my mac is on, data & doc's are on. Everything is on how it should be. For some reason it doesn't work & I can not find anything wrong with it or any info on the web/apple as to what could be the issue