Once, I get all of my adjusted photos into Aperture, I do not really care about the masters.
Don't take this the wrong way, but what you are trying to accomplish goes agains the most basic design of Aperture. Aperture is intended to keep your masters safe and unadulterated, while giving you the opportunity to export your versions on demand.
If I export masters, I get a file that is 60gb (same aas the orignal import file. If I export versions, I get a file that is about 150gb.
Your versions do not take up 150 GB in the Aperture library. They take up several K for the "recipe", and then some small thumbnails and preview images. The only reason you see that the versions are 150 GB is because you exported them and looked at what Aperture generated at your request.
How do I export my master files with all of the tags? Or how do I export my versions without having to keep the bloated file of 150gb instead of 60gb? What is attached to the versions that would more than double th efile size?
Your masters are supposed to stay exactly the same as when you imported them. However, when exporting masters, you can choose, in the Metadata selection, to "Include IPTC"; this includes some of the metadata. I am unsure of the exact items it includes, though. Some of the things you can do in Aperture are not supported by general metadata formats.
As for exporting the versions, you don't get a "bloated file". Rather, you get many (25000?) files. Depending on your export preset, it is entirely possible that each exported version is larger than its corresponding imported master. Check the "Export Preset" selection when you export versions to see what format Aperture is making. There is nothing "attached" to versions. Each one is a completely independent picture file.
I am trying to export the masters to an external drive with all of my star ratings, places, faces, and tags in order to import them to a smaller file.
Not sure what you are getting at here. What do you mean by "import them into a smaller file?" Do you mean that you want to get rid of your Aperture library package (which is actually hundreds of thousands of files) and replace it with a different Aperture library which is smaller? Again, you might want to rethink this. It is not what Aperture is intended for -- you are giving up good, quality photos for something inferior. Why do you want to replace your photos with something inferior?