Sure, you can use OD-based users and sudo.
Maybe add your users to the domain's Administrators group, which, by default, would grant sudo on the member machines. Careful, though, as that's the _domain_ administration group. If you need to restrict access so they can't make domain admin level changes but so they can do just about anything on your member servers and workstations, you could just create a new sudo group, maybe called "sudo-admins" then append an appropriate line to the sudoers files on all of your machines... maybe a line that reads:
%sudo-admins ALL=(ALL) ALL
(standard warning about using caution while editing sudoers goes here -- be careful)