I have a similar problem. I need to sync all my devices with ical but because icloud cut out anyone who can't run the latest OS I have been cut out of syncing the old fashioned mac way. I am trying to see if I can sync using a gmail account. I was told by apple support that I could but I have not been successful yet. Anyone know if this works?
I was having the problem also. I found two workarounds that sorta solved the problem.
1. Doodle.com. The MyDoodle feature publishes a calendar on a website that people can use. It works very nicely except it only offers week view. Additionally, it only shows your "free/busy" time. Still, this is my preference since I don't necessarily want people to know where I am all the time. Doodle synchronizes with your existing calendars automatically using the Doodle-iCal Connector free. This has been the best solution for me.
2. Google Calendar with BusySync. Create a Google Calendar and use BusySync to sync your iCloud calendars to Google Calendar. Then you can create html code and paste it into a website. This would be good for a class.
I find this change EXTREMELY frustrating. It has created a big problem for me. The lack of web viewable calendars has really hogtied me after using this system well for a year. Also the google calendar's functionality for sharing with others without a google profile is abismal. I'm really disapointed that my new Ipad is pretty much not going to be as funstiocal as I wanted it to be now.