You can select to sync you contacts and calendar with Outlook on the Info tab of your iTune sync settings.
If this is your first sync you will get a merge or replace prompt for calendars and contacts as long as there is at least one contact and one calendar event in Outlook. If this is not your first sync you will need to reset your sync history to generate a merge or replace prompt (see http://support.apple.com/kb/HT1692). If you don't, the calendar and contacts on your phone will be replaced with those in Outlook.
Email is not synced. To get your email on your phone, set up the your email account in Settings>Mail,Contacts,Calendars>Add Account.