I don't know what that error means, but if you have not already, shut down (power off) your computer. Reset the iPod shuffle using this procedure
Start up the computer with the iPod NOT connected. Run iTunes. Connect the iPod shuffle and try to sync it again.
If there is still a problem with syncing, but the shuffle appears in the iTunes sidebar, I would next do a Restore (using iTunes) to erase the iPod and set it to default ("factory") settings.