There seems to be an issue with all MBP-R's and some USB 3 drives - either the drive isn't recognized at all, the drive is recognized but copies files at USB 2 speeds, or the drives will simply not read/write properly - the latter seems to be your case.
It seems to be an Apple problem with the USB 3 ports which will likely be fixed by a firmware/software update. If I were you, I'd certainly file a bug report with Apple. I would also call vendors such as LaCie and OWC to see if they have USB 3 drives that are actually working with the MBP-R.
Sorry I couldn't be of more help - your problem is one that has many threads going...