Error writing: C:/Program Files/Common Files/Apple/Apple Application Support/CoreFoundation.resource/Info.plist.Verify that you have access to that directory
That one's consistent with disk/file damage. The first thing I'd try with that is running a disk check (chkdsk) over your C drive.
XP instructions in the following document: How to perform disk error checking in Windows XP
Vista instructions in the following document: Check your hard disk for errors
Windows 7 instructions in the following document: How to use CHKDSK (Check Disk)
Select both Automatically fix file system errors and Scan for and attempt recovery of bad sectors, or use chkdsk /r (depending on which way you decide to go about doing this). You'll almost certainly have to schedule the chkdsk to run on startup. The scan should take quite a while ... if it quits after a few minutes or seconds, something's interfering with the scan.
Does the chkdsk find/repair any damage? If so, can you get an install to go through properly afterwards?
Okay. Let's try hiding the damage from the installer.
In your Start menu, open "My Computer" (or "Computer" if you're on Vista or Windows 7).
Open your C:\ Drive.
Open the "Program Files" folder.
Open the "Common Files" folder.
Open the "Apple" folder.
Open the "Apple Application Support" folder.
Rename the "CoreFoundation.Resources" folder CoreFoundation.ResourcesOLD.
Try another install. Does it go through properly this time?