I have the same problem:
Aperture synchronizes all changes to the version names and the captions; Aperture will add new versions or remove versions to the flickr set, but I found no way to get it to synchrnize the edits to the images in the flickr set.
I think this is a bug, for the manual for the current Aperture version says in the paragraph
As your Flickr and Facebook albums grow, you can publish them at any time. Aperture checks to see which image versions have already been published in the album and then uploads any version that has changed and any new versions.
This new working criteria of Aperture 3.3.2 is very annoying.
Now all images appears as "Replaced on Flickr" and sometime they are replaced multiple times without any apparent reason.
Note: Replaced on Flickr function change image link so old shared links doesn't work anymore
Another strange thing: What sense have to load first image as low resolution and then replace it as Original Size and set it as replaced?
I've had problems with Aperture refusing to sync actual size images to Flickr. This seems to be random - some images in my sets appear as oringinal files on Fickr, but others not. This is strange because in my Aperture Flickr album, I have 'Original Size Images' selected as the sync option for all my sets (using the 'Flickr' button on the bottom right). I have tried syncing them as Web Optimized and then syncing them again as Original Size, but no dice...
So far, so bad, so to fix the problem I want to use the Flickr 'Replace' function to replace the small size of the affected photos with the large size in my Aperture library. The Flickr 'Replace' function opens a dialogue box that asks me to select the replacement photo. But I can't open the Aperture Library to select the photo I want via that dialogue box. Does that mean that I have to 1. export the photo from Aperture to my HDD, then 2. replace it using the Replace function ?
Any help would be appreciated. Thanks.