I have photos on my Photo Stream which I can view on my Photo Steam album in my 'Photos' app on my iPhone. Is there any other way of viewing these photos online and transfer them onto my Mac? I have looked on my iCloud page and there are no photo or photo stream options to views the photos.
You cannot view photos on icloud.
As for your mac - doesn't it connect with photo stream? If the photos in icloud's stream server are still there (they are deleted after 30 days) then the mac should be able to get them in the photo stream album in iphoto or Aperture. If the photos are older than 30 days, they still show on the phone, but can't be synced to the mac using FS. In that case you'll have to sync them the old fashioned way, using a USB cable.