Emails send and receive fine, however, messages send from the Android phone, using the default email client, do not show up in the Sent folder on my Mac or on iCloud.com. I have also tried a different client - Aquamail - on the phone, which has exactly the same results.
When I browse the folders that have been set up on the server, they are all there, including the Sent folder, which contains messages sent from my Mac, running ML and my iPhone 3GS running OS6.
The behaviour is rather like what you would expect if the email account had been set up as a POP account, however, the Inbox syncs correctly across all devices. In effect, it is like there are two 'Sent' folders.