What version of iPhoto and system are you running? Did you apply any updaters or upgrade any item just before this occurred? Are the photos still showing in the book?
About your only option to get those albums back is to restore a backup copy of your library made just before this problem first presented itself.
However, you can try repairing the iPhoto database as follows: make a temporary, backup copy of your library if you don't already have one (Control-click on the library and select Duplicate from the contextual menu) and apply the fix below which is based on you're running iPhoto 9 (11):
Launch iPhoto with the Command+Option keys held down and rebuild the library.
Since only one option can be run at a time start with Option #1, followed by #3 and then #4 as needed.