Connect your iPhone to you computer with the iPhone's USB connector. If iTunes doesn't sutomatically launch, open iTunes.
In the left hand column of the iTunes window, under Devices, your iphone should be listed. Click on it, and a Summary Window on about your iPhone will appear.
Just below the Apple at the top center of the iTunes window you'll see "Summary, Info, Apps, Tones, Music, Movies, TV Shows, Photos". Click on Info. You'll see options to check like Sync Contacts, Calendars, Mail, Other, and Advanced. Check the options you want to sync. Do the same for Tones, Music, Movies, TV Shows, and Photos.
Then Click on the Summary button. Under the Backup heading, make sure Backup to iCloud is checked. Then you might have to click the Sync button in the bottom right corner of the iTunes Window (not sure about this last one).