Are you talking about an iOS Backup to iCloud, or are you talking about syncing? They are different and work in very different ways.
This article discusses iOS backups: http://support.apple.com/kb/HT4847
And these articles are for troubleshooting syncing of contacts and calendars:
Thank you Julian for your reply. Based on the info & articles it appears that iCloud does NOT backup calendar or contacts really at all except for settings. Syncing does not appear to work well either as iCloud considers contacts & calendar to be ONLY those that are created in iCloud for icloud.com. Syncing from iTunes or the 4S to iCloud results in nonexistent mail & calendar as well as partially existent contacts. In addition, some calendar & contacts that were present early on in the owing of the 4S have just disappeared MIA, never to be seen or heard from again. NOT ACCEPTABLE!!! Most especially when you have supposedly followed all the instructions & recommendations for syncing your information in multiple locations & backed it up so it is retrieveable. Nothing should fall through the cracks if the system is working correctly as it should.
Thanks again for your suggestions, Java & I hope we get some resolution SOON!!
For contacts and calendars to sync via iCloud, they have to be stored in iCloud - that is as it is designed and how all of these cloud based syncing services work. Locally stored contacts and calendars do not sync via the cloud.
You should choose to sync either local contacts and calendars via iTunes (over USB or WiFi), or cloud-based contacts and calendars via iCloud (over the internet). Attempting to have both on the phone and sync both at the same time is bound to cause problems.
Apple used to strive for smarter solutions but that has changed.
After "upgrading" to Mavericks you can no longer sync device to device with USB or WiFi.
This is so stupid! First, when you travel there are long periods of no WiFi or 3G/4G. Second, cloud-based services are still pretty worthless because it's slow. Third, cloud-based services are still pretty worthless because of low security. Fourth, cloud-based services are still pretty worthless because of low capacity (I have a calendar from my first Newton of 1996 and iCloud can't handle the amount of data).
Why would you prohibit safe and fast syncing via USB??? It's just plain stupid!
Do NOT upgrade to Mavericks if you want to keep your safe and fast sync for Calendars and Contacts.