It sounds like you've done a restore from an iTunes backup. Unfortunately, you should have been syncing photos to your computer all along (not as part of a backup). If you have been doing this, then the photos will be on the computer, in whichever folder they were synced to (if using a PC) or in iPhoto (if using a mac). Otherwise they will be gone. If messages, etc. are also missing after doing a restore, then that data is gone as well. However, if you have had icloud turned on and have been syncing Apple data like contacts, calendars, reminders, etc. then just go to Settings>icloud and log back in, and turn on the data (contacts, etc.) that you want to sync with. Doing that will sync the data from icloud's databases back to your iphone.