How can pictures be exported from the ipad to a computer or sd card?
not without using some third party service. Such as upload them to something like dropbox from the iPad then download them onto your computer.
I'm not familiar with photo apps, but you might want to search through them and see if there are any apps that offer a separate syncing ability.
Importing personal photos and videos from your iOS device to your computer. - http://support.apple.com/kb/HT4083 - other useful information at https://discussions.apple.com/message/20302567
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