I have a similar problem, my MBP Retina 15" 6 weeks old crashes and locks-up all the time with just about every application. I now have gone back to using my old MS XP system, it is much more stable than Mountain Lion OS and Apple hardware. I use Window-7 at work for last 6 months, not a single crash and/or lock-up. I'm looking at returning/selling my MBP and getting a Window-8 system, Apple is now building crap hardware and software. I recommend you consider the same solution. Good Luck !
I'm having the same issue on a Late-2012 15" non-Retina MacBook Pro. Random crash. Never happened on my last machine.
I suspect defective NVIDIA 650M GPU or defective GPU driver. Because look:
Kernel Extensions in backtrace:
dependency: com.apple.NVDAResman(8.0.6)[6DE39FFA-F7E3-3EF5-AF75-43F2A69F6288]@0xffffff7f86c 45000
dependency: com.apple.iokit.IONDRVSupport(2.3.6)[6A1A36AC-2F79-34AF-A162-A97FE16705E3]@0xff ffff7f86c31000
dependency: com.apple.iokit.IOPCIFamily(2.7.3)[7EECA562-F708-37FF-9757-CA9C98939903]@0xffff ff7f8679d000
dependency: com.apple.iokit.IOGraphicsFamily(2.3.6)[2E420A99-8DBF-3C1D-AE39-75B7EE4D5C1E]@0 xffffff7f86bee000
I have had a defective NVIDIA GPU in my Mac before as well. Switching brands to a PC manufacturer will not necessarily cure your issue, you could easily end up with a defective GPU as well. When the NVIDIA GPUs were defective in the past it affected all manufacturers that used the chip, not just Apple.
What you should do is take your machine to Apple. It is under warranty. In the past with similar issues they replaced my logic board.
BTW I noticed the fans on my MacBook Pro were not activating for some reason. I'm not sure if it was possibly shutting down due to overheating. You should get a temperature monitoring program and see where you're at. Mine was getting up around 210° F !! I immediately put a fan utility on to force the fans to blow. I'm going to see why the system wasn't automatically doing this. It should have been.