The initial fan speed is set to maximum by Hardware at power-on. Then the software resets those to more moderate speed several times a second based on actual temperature readings.
If your computer stops running the software normally, the fan speeds will not get reset and Hardware will revert the fan speed to maximum to avoid thermal damage to your computer. There is no additional information there except that the software is not running normally.
If there was a kernel panic, those are saved in logs and can be read out and examined for clues about the failure. This article show how to get them out, and you can just cut and paste them here for Readers to look at for clues, or take them to the Genius Bar.