Since iOS 6 the iPhone's own Number has been greyed out as an Send and Receive "Name/ID".
It should still be ticked though.
Once the Apple ID has been Added then Messages on the Mac should be restarted.
When it restarts it should get an alert type message from the iMessages Server that the iPhone is using it's Number and the Apple ID (And any other IDs you added) and Accepting them will add them as active Send and Receive Aliases in the Mac's version.
This creates the "Start Point" and Number and iD sync so that the iMessages server will start syncing the iMessages for that point on.
Older Messages already on the iPhone will not be synced.
Please, if posting Logs, do not post any Log info after the line "Binary Images for iChat"
iMac 2.5Ghz 5i 2011 (Mountain Lion 10.8.2)
G4/1GhzDual MDD (Leopard 10.5.8)
MacBookPro 2Gb (Snow Leopard 10.6.8)
Mac OS X (10.6.8),
Couple of iPhones and an iPad
"Limit the Logs to the Bits above Binary Images." No, Seriously