1. Back up your hard drive first. Maybe it's trying to tell you it isn't long for this world.
2. Make sure you have enough free space on your hard drive. Like 20 - 25%.
3. Try doing some routine maintenance/ troubleshooting things, like repairing permissions with disk utility,Disk Utility - Using Disk Utility to Repair Permissions , and then booting into the recovery partition and repairing your hard drive. OS X: About OS X Recovery
4. Make a new test user account and see if the problem is still present. Isolating an issue by using another user account
5. Try booting in safe mode and see if the problem is still present. OS X Mountain Lion: Start up in safe mode
This should keep you busy for a while.
Thanks so much for getting back to me Arthur. I went through all of your suggestions and found that the only one that really helped wad creating a new user. The issues seemed to still occur in safe mode...not as many, but still there. Even weirder, I changed my wallpapers yesterday and now they're back to how they were before. Any idea as to what might be wrong? Thank you!