I set my Mac up first then added the Apple ID to my iPhone and iPad.
I have reset the iPhone once as it appeared to "lose" the iPhone number and was niot appearing in the Mac version either.
I removed the Apple ID from the iPhone and waited to see if the iPhone number would show as ticked.
It did not so I put the iPhone in Airplane Mode to "break" with the iMessages server.
On coming out of Airplane Mode the Send and Receive spot then listed the iPhone Number with a tick even though it remained greyed out.
I added the Apple ID again.
I restarted the Mac version and it then got the alert message that the iPhone was using it's iPhone Number and the Apple ID.
Please, if posting Logs, do not post any Log info after the line "Binary Images for iChat"
iMac 2.5Ghz 5i 2011 (Mountain Lion 10.8.2)
G4/1GhzDual MDD (Leopard 10.5.8)
MacBookPro 2Gb (Snow Leopard 10.6.8)
Mac OS X (10.6.8),
Couple of iPhones and an iPad
"Limit the Logs to the Bits above Binary Images." No, Seriously