some fonts are pre-disabled on OS X
The only fonts like that are some new Chinese fonts added in 10.8.
Bear in mind that a great many of the fonts supplied with OS X can do multiple languages in addition to English, so the kind of sorting you are thinking of may not really be possible. If I have time I will try to put together a list of the ones that are really intended for specialized use...
PS Here is a rough list of fonts provided with OS X intended for use only with particular non-Latin scripts:
Arabic : al bayan, baghdad, damascus, decotype naskh, geeza pro, nadeem
Hebrew: arial hebrew, corsiva hebrew, new peninim, raanana
Thai: ayuthaya, krungthep, sathu, silom, thonburi
Lao : lao
Tibetan: kailasa, kokonor
Korean: gungseo, headline, nanum, pcmyungjo, pilgi, applegothic, applemyungjo
Chinese: biaukai, gb18030, hei, heiti, kai, lihei, lisong, stfangsong, stheiti, stkaiti, stsong, apple ligothic, baoli, kaiti, lantinghei, libian, songti, wawati, weibei, xingkai, yuanti, yuppi
Indic: devanagari, bangla, gurmukhi, gujarati, oriya, tamil, telugu, kannada, malayalam, sinhala,
Myanmar : myanmar
Cherokee : plantagenet cherokee
UCAS : euphemia
Khmer : khmer
For anyone else wondering about what fonts to have installed my personal default list of fonts set in fontbook is everything in the english category except Avenir Next Condensed, which is disabled by default and the STIX fonts, which just get annoying. Everything else I have grouped by language and disabled.. until i decide i want to look at something in another language. There are still a few non-english system fonts enabled, but only like 10 or 15, nothing big, and they're at the bottom so it's fine for me.
Also, if anyone was wondering, system fonts can't be disabled in fontbook, so don't worry about disabling anything you shouldn't. Just stay out of those font folders.
Update. I noticed these font's weren't organized:
Apple LiGothic and Apple LiSung are Chinese fonts.
AppleGothic and AppleMyungjo are Korean fonts.
Also, here is a list of fonts that are disabled by default on mountain lion, incase you accidentally enabled them:
Avenir Next Condensed
PT Sans Captioin
PT Sans Narrow