I have the same problem at two places. At home and at work. The same system (Lion) the same external drive: G-Drive 2Tb.
Here are messages from console concerning backup failure.
First backup works but none after.
Partitions in two subdisks and reformating don't help.
Please, M. Davis, have a look.
13-09-26 12:15:29,449 com.apple.backupd: Starting standard backup
13-09-26 12:15:29,620 com.apple.backupd: Backing up to: /Volumes/G-DRIVE/Backups.backupdb
13-09-26 12:15:34,215 com.apple.backupd: Error: (22) setxattr for key:com.apple.backupd.HostUUID path:/Volumes/G-DRIVE/Backups.backupdb/107029210A size:37
13-09-26 12:15:34,224 com.apple.backupd: Error: (22) setxattr for key:com.apple.backupd.HostUUID path:/Volumes/G-DRIVE/Backups.backupdb/107029210A size:37
13-09-26 12:15:37,520 com.apple.launchd.peruser.503: (com.akamai.client.plist) Bug: launchd_core_logic.c:4745 (26200):13
13-09-26 12:15:44,236 com.apple.backupd: Backup failed with error: 2
I have been experiencing the same Time Machine failure with OS X 10.9.2. Some initial number of Time Machine backups succeed, but after a few hours a backup fails with the messages below. Thereafter, backups continue to fail until I reboot. Then all is well for a few more hours.
4/23/14 11:58:16.260 PM com.apple.backupd: Starting automatic backup
4/23/14 11:58:16.297 PM com.apple.backupd: Backing up to /dev/disk2s2: /Volumes/Seagate 4TB Backup/Backups.backupdb
4/23/14 11:58:16.621 PM com.apple.backupd: Error: (22) setxattr for key:com.apple.backupd.HostUUID path:/Volumes/Seagate 4TB Backup/Backups.backupdb/Gordon's iMac size:37
4/23/14 11:58:16.622 PM com.apple.backupd: Backup failed with error 2: 2
Some facts that may possibly be relevant:
I am backing up to a Seagate "Backup Plus" desktop drive directly connected to my iMac via USB. I used Disk Utility to copy my previous Time Machine backup volume "Macintosh HD 2", a 1 TB internal drive. I had to do this because the Finder reliably failed when trying to drag the backup folder to the 4TB Seagate drive that is attached via USB. Rsync also reliably failed when attempting to copy Backups.backupdb
Even more interesting, backups to my internal Macintosh HD 2 volume never experienced this Time Machine backup failure, while backups to my external Seagate 4TB Backup volume do have this problem. Is it possible that a Disk Utility copy of my 1 TB internal drive is somehow corrupted? Everything checks out okay in Disk Utility, and the Seagate drive passes the Seagate Dashboard drive test.