The following article may be helpful in getting your Calendar data syncing back to your computer from your iPhone.
Hi Allen, these instructions seem tailored to mobile me vs. iCloud. I don't see a reset Sync with iCloud. I tried to reset sync on my iPhone, but it still is not syncing to my iCloud and therefore my desktop. The primary reason I've chosen iPhone in past is the ease of interface between my devices. Any other suggestions would be greatly appreciated.