Thanks for the question. You can definitely sync your new iPod touch with the local calendar on your computer (you won't need to setup an account like iCloud). The following article may help you achieve this:
Contacts, Calendars, Bookmarks, and Notes
You can sync contacts, calendars, bookmarks, and notes with other applications on your computer. This allows you keep all your information in sync across multiple computers and iOS devices. The settings for these items are all in the Info tab for your iOS device in iTunes. With your iOS device connected to the computer, select your iOS device. Then click the Info tab.
To sync calendars with your computer, choose "Sync Calendars" or "Sync iCal Calendars."
- When syncing calendars, you can sync all calendars or sync specific calendars.
- You can limit the data that is synced to only events that have occurred in the last 30 days. The option can be changed to any number of days.
For additional information, see this article (while the article refers to iTunes 11, most steps are applicable for you):