I have worked through this problem also. I got WPA2 Enterprise Wi-Fi working, but it wasn't simple. For one thing the Apple Configurator knowledge base articles you listed for creating/downloading a profile to an Apple TV (those are the newest ones I could find also) don't match what I see on the current version of Apple Cofigurator, 1.3.1, and the newest version of the Apple TV OS, 5.3 (6105). The instructions in the Help section of Apple Configurator were better for me. I also found it impossible to plug both the HDMI and micro-USB connectors in at the same time. That wasn't a big problem, but it was annoying.
I did not have the spinning gear problem you saw. For me the process went through properly and a window came up saying that the download succeeded. I documented the steps I took and can send them if you would like, but I'm not posting them here since they ran about 25 pages with pictures.
I ran into another roadblock after getting the profile to download. When I tried to connect to WiFi the Apple TV couldn't authenticate to WPA2 Enterprise on startup. I eventually found a process that worked.
1. Power down the Apple TV.
2. Plug in Ethernet to the Apple TV.
3. Power Up the Apple TV.
4. Wait for Ethernet networking to settle down.
5. Unplug Ethernet and the Apple TV should switch to Wi-Fi in 30 seconds or so.
My first guess on why powering up directly into Wi-Fi doesn't work is that our network requires a fairly close match in the clocks for systems attempting to authenticate and Apple TV doesn't acquire a clock time until it is connected to the network. In any event I never got Wi-Fi networking to work on our Enterprise network without first connecting to the wired network which doesn't require authentication.
Note: My Apple TV was purchased in October 2012.